Product InformationRegistration Status: Active
APO-HYDRO TABLET 25mg is approved to be sold in Singapore with effective from 1989-05-08. It is marketed by PHARMAFORTE SINGAPORE PTE LTD, with the registration number of SIN03676P.
This product contains Hydrochlorothiazide 25mg in the form of TABLET. It is approved for ORAL use.
This product is manufactured by APOTEX INC in CANADA.
It is a Prescription Only Medicine that can only be obtained from a doctor or a dentist, or a pharmacist with a prescription from a Singapore-registered doctor or dentist.
A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It has been used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism. [PubChem]
For the treatment of high blood pressure and management of edema.
Mechanism of Action
Hydrochlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic, inhibits water reabsorption in the nephron by inhibiting the sodium-chloride symporter (SLC12A3) in the distal convoluted tubule, which is responsible for 5% of total sodium reabsorption. Normally, the sodium-chloride symporter transports sodium and chloride from the lumen into the epithelial cell lining the distal convoluted tubule. The energy for this is provided by a sodium gradient established by sodium-potassium ATPases on the basolateral membrane. Once sodium has entered the cell, it is transported out into the basolateral interstitium via the sodium-potassium ATPase, causing an increase in the osmolarity of the interstitium, thereby establishing an osmotic gradient for water reabsorption. By blocking the sodium-chloride symporter, hydrochlorothiazide effectively reduces the osmotic gradient and water reabsorption throughout the nephron.
- Hydrochlorothiazide is not metabolized.
The most common signs and symptoms observed are those caused by electrolyte depletion (hypokalemia, hypochloremia, hyponatremia) and dehydration resulting from excessive diuresis. If digitalis has also been administered, hypokalemia may accentuate cardiac arrhythmias. The oral LD50 of hydrochlorothiazide is greater than 10 g/kg in the mouse and rat.
HCTZ | Hydrochlorothiazide |
Source of information: Drugbank (External Link). Last updated on: 3rd July 18. *Trade Name used in the content below may not be the same as the HSA-registered product.