Product InformationRegistration Status: Active
CEBROTONIN TABLET 800mg is approved to be sold in Singapore with effective from 1991-04-07. It is marketed by DCH AURIGA SINGAPORE, with the registration number of SIN06408P.
This product contains Piracetam 800mg in the form of TABLET, FILM-COATED. It is approved for ORAL use.
This product is manufactured by Artesan Pharma GmbH & Co. KG in GERMANY.
It is a Prescription Only Medicine that can only be obtained from a doctor or a dentist, or a pharmacist with a prescription from a Singapore-registered doctor or dentist.
Piracetam is a nootropic drug in the racetams group, with chemical name 2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine acetamide. It shares the same 2-oxo-pyrrolidone base structure with pyroglutamic acid and is a cyclic derivative of the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). However its mechanism of action differ from that of endogenous GABA.Piracetam has neuroprotective and anticonvulsant properties and is reported to improve neural plasticity [A31532]. Its efficacy is documented in cognitive disorders and dementia, vertigo, cortical myoclonus, dyslexia, and sickle cell anemia although the clinical application in these conditions is not yet established. Piracetam has effects on the vascular system by reduce erythrocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium, hinder vasospasm and facilitate microcirculation [A31532]. Originally marketed by UCB Pharma in 1971, piracetam was the first nootropic drug to modulate cognitive function without causing sedation or stimulation [A31532]. In the United States, it is not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for any medical use and it is not permitted to be sold as a dietary supplement. In the UK, piracetam is prescribed mainly for myoclonus, but is used off-label for other conditions such as learning difficulties in children, memory loss or other cognitive defects in the elderly, and sickle-cell vaso-occlusive crises [L1124]. Evidence to support its use for many conditions is unclear.
Indicated in adult patients suffering from myoclonus of cortical origin, irrespective of aetiology, and should be used in combination with other anti-myoclonic therapies [L1125].
Mechanism of Action
Piracetam interacts with the polar heads in the phospholipids membrane and the resulting mobile drug-lipid complexes are thought to reorganize the lipids and influence membrane function and fluidity [A31532]. Such interaction has been reported in a study that investigated the effects of neuronal outgrowth induced by beta amyloid peptides; while amyloid peptides cause lipid disorganization within the cell membranes leading to neuronal death, piracetam demonstrated to decrease the destabilizing effects of amyloid peptide [A31534]. The authors suggest that piracetam induces a positive curvature of the membrane by occupying the polar groups in the phospholipids to counteract the negative curvature induced by amyloid peptides , which in turn would decrease the likelihood of membrane fusion [A31532]. This mechanism of action is thought to improve membrane stability, allowing the membrane and transmembrane proteins to maintain and recover the three-dimensional structure or folding for normal function [L1124] such as membrane transport, chemical secretion, and receptor binding and stimulation [A31532]. Through restored membrane fluidity, piracetam promotes restored neurotransmission such as glutamatergic and cholinergic systems, enhances neuroplasticity and mediates neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects at the neuronal level [A31532]. It is also demonstrated that piracetam also improves the fluidity of platelet membranes. At the vascular level, piracetam decreases adhesion of erythrocytes to cell wall and reduces vasospasm which in turn improves microcirculation including cerebral and renal blood flow [A31532].
- Piracetam displays a linear and time-dependent pharmacokinetic properties with low intersubject variability over a large range of doses. Piracetam is rapidly and extensively absorbed following oral administration with the peak plasma concentration is reached within 1 hour after dosing in fasted subjects. Following a single oral dose of 3.2 g piracetam, the peak plasma concentration (Cmax) was 84 µg/mL. Intake of food may decrease the Cmax by 17% and increase the time to reach Cmax (Tmax) from 1 to 1.5 hours. Tmax in the cerebrospinal fluid is achieved approximately 5 hours post-administration [L1124]. The absolute bioavailability of piracetam oral formulations is close to 100% and the steady state plasma concentrations are achieved within 3 days of dosing [L1124].
- Vd is approximately 0.6L/kg. Piracetam may cross the blood-brain barrier as it was measured in the cerebrospinal fluid following intravenous administration [L1124]. Piracetam diffuses to all tissues except adipose tissues, crosses placental barrier and penetrates the membranes of isolated red blood cells [L1124].
- As large proportion of total piracetam administered is excreted as unchanged drug, there is no known major metabolism of piracetam [L1124].
The apparent total body clearance is 80-90 mL/min [L1124].
The cases of overdose with piracetam is rare. The highest reported overdose with piracetam was oral intake of 75g which was associated with diarrhea and abdominal pain; the signs were most likely related to the extreme high dose of sorbitol contained in the used formulation. In cases of acute, significant overdosage, stomach emptying by gastric lavage or induced emesis is recommended as there are no known antidotes for piracetam [L1124]. Management for an overdose will most likely be symptomatic treatment and may include hemodialysis, where the extraction efficacy of the dialyser is 50 to 60% for the drug [L1124]. Oral LD50 in a mouse acute toxicity study was 2000 mg/kg [MSDS].
Piracetam | Piracetam |
Source of information: Drugbank (External Link). Last updated on: 3rd July 18. *Trade Name used in the content below may not be the same as the HSA-registered product.