Product Information

Registration Status: Active

CHIROCAINE INJECTION 7.5mg/ML is approved to be sold in Singapore with effective from 2001-01-03. It is marketed by ABBVIE PTE LTD, with the registration number of SIN11465P.

This product contains Levobupivacaine 7.5mg/ml in the form of INJECTION. It is approved for EPIDURAL use.

This product is manufactured by Takeda Nycomed AS in NORWAY.

It is a Prescription Only Medicine that can only be obtained from a doctor or a dentist, or a pharmacist with a prescription from a Singapore-registered doctor or dentist.



Levobupivacaine is an amino-amide local anaesthetic drug belonging to the family of n-alkylsubstituted pipecoloxylidide. It is the S-enantiomer of bupivacaine. Levobupivacaine hydrochloride is commonly marketed by AstraZeneca under the trade name Chirocaine. Compared to bupivacaine, levobupivacaine is associated with less vasodilation and has a longer duration of action. It is approximately 13 per cent less potent (by molarity) than racemic bupivacaine.Levobupivacaine is indicated for local anaesthesia including infiltration, nerve block, ophthalmic, epidural and intrathecal anaesthesia in adults; and infiltration analgesia in children. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are rare when it is administered correctly. Most ADRs relate to administration technique (resulting in systemic exposure) or pharmacological effects of anesthesia, however allergic reactions can rarely occur.


For the production of local or regional anesthesia for surgery and obstetrics, and for post-operative pain management

Mechanism of Action

Local anesthetics such as Levobupivacaine block the generation and the conduction of nerve impulses, presumably by increasing the threshold for electrical excitation in the nerve, by slowing the propagation of the nerve impulse, and by reducing the rate of rise of the action potential. In general, the progression of anesthesia is related to the diameter, myelination and conduction velocity of affected nerve fibers. Specifically, the drug binds to the intracellular portion of sodium channels and blocks sodium influx into nerve cells, which prevents depolarization.


The plasma concentration of levobupivacaine following therapeutic administration depends on dose and also on route of administration, because absorption from the site of administration is affected by the vascularity of the tissue. Peak levels in blood were reached approximately 30 minutes after epidural administration, and doses up to 150 mg resulted in mean Cmax levels of up to 1.2 µg/mL.
66.91 ±18.23 L [after intravenous administration of 40 mg in healthy volunteers]
Levobupivacaine is extensively metabolized with no unchanged levobupivacaine detected in urine or feces. In vitro studies using [14 C] levobupivacaine showed that CYP3A4 isoform and CYP1A2 isoform mediate the metabolism of levobupivacaine to desbutyl levobupivacaine and 3-hydroxy levobupivacaine, respectively. In vivo, the 3-hydroxy levobupivacaine appears to undergo further transformation to glucuronide and sulfate conjugates. Metabolic inversion of levobupivacaine to R(+)-bupivacaine was not evident both in vitro and in vivo.


39.06 ±13.29 L/h [after intravenous administration of 40 mg in healthy volunteers]


LD50: 5.1mg/kg in rabbit, intravenous; 18mg/kg in rabbit, oral; 207mg/kg in rabbit, parenteral; 63mg/kg in rat, subcutaneous (Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie. Vol. 200, Pg. 359, 1972.) Levobupivacaine appears to cause less myocardial depression than both bupivacaine and ropivacaine, despite being in higher concentrations.

Active Ingredient/Synonyms

(-)-Bupivacaine | (S)-1-Butyl-2',6'-pipecoloxylidide | (S)-Bupivacaine | L-(-)-1-Butyl-2',6'-pipecoloxylidide | L-(-)-Bupivacaine | Levobupivacaine | Levobupivacaine |

Source of information: Drugbank (External Link). Last updated on: 3rd July 18. *Trade Name used in the content below may not be the same as the HSA-registered product.


  1. Health Science Authority of Singapore - Reclassified POM
  2. Drugbank