ABALAM ABACAVIR SULFATE & LAMIVUDINE TABLETS 600/300 MG

Abacavir
Lamivudine

Source of information: Drugbank (External Link). Last updated on: 3rd July 18
*Trade Name used in the content below may not be the same as the HSA-registered product.

Active Ingredient / Synonyms

{(1S-cis)-4-[2-amino-6-(cyclopropylamino)-9H-purin-9-yl]cyclopent-2-en-1-yl}methanol | ABC | Abacavir |

Description

Abacavir (ABC) is a powerful nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) used to treat HIV and AIDS. Chemically, it is a synthetic carbocyclic nucleoside and is the enantiomer with 1S, 4R absolute configuration on the cyclopentene ring. In vivo, abacavir sulfate dissociates to its free base, abacavir.

Indication

For the treatment of HIV-1 infection, in combination with other antiretroviral agents.

Mechanism of Action

Abacavir is a carbocyclic synthetic nucleoside analogue and an antiviral agent. Intracellularly, abacavir is converted by cellular enzymes to the active metabolite carbovir triphosphate, an analogue of deoxyguanosine-5'-triphosphate (dGTP). Carbovir triphosphate inhibits the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) both by competing with the natural substrate dGTP and by its incorporation into viral DNA. Viral DNA growth is terminated because the incorporated nucleotide lacks a 3'-OH group, which is needed to form the 5′ to 3′ phosphodiester linkage essential for DNA chain elongation.

Pharmacodynamics

Abacavir is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) with activity against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1). Abacavir is phosphorylated to active metabolites that compete for incorporation into viral DNA. They inhibit the HIV reverse transcriptase enzyme competitively and act as a chain terminator of DNA synthesis. The concentration of drug necessary to effect viral replication by 50 percent (EC50) ranged from 3.7 to 5.8 μM (1 μM = 0.28 mcg/mL) and 0.07 to 1.0 μM against HIV-1IIIB and HIV-1BaL, respectively, and was 0.26 ± 0.18 μM against 8 clinical isolates. Abacavir had synergistic activity in cell culture in combination with the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) zidovudine, the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) nevirapine, and the protease inhibitor (PI) amprenavir; and additive activity in combination with the NRTIs didanosine, emtricitabine, lamivudine, stavudine, tenofovir, and zalcitabine.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption:

Rapid and extensive after oral administration (83% bioavailability, tablet). When a 300 mg tablet is given twice daily to subjects, the peak plasma concentration (Cmax) was 3.0 ± 0.89 mcg/mL and the area under the curve (AUC 0-12 hours) was 6.02 ± 1.73 mcg•hr/mL.

Distribution:

* 0.86 ± 0.15 L/kg [IV administration]

Metabolism:

Hepatic, by alcohol dehydrogenase and glucuronosyltransferase to a 5′-carboxylic acid metabolite and 5′-glucuronide metabolite, respectively. These metabolites have no antiviral activity. Abacavir is not significantly metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes.

Elimination:

Elimination of abacavir was quantified in a mass balance study following administration of a 600-mg dose of 14C-abacavir: 99% of the radioactivity was recovered, 1.2% was excreted in the urine as abacavir, 30% as the 5′-carboxylic acid metabolite, 36% as the 5′-glucuronide metabolite, and 15% as unidentified minor metabolites in the urine. Fecal elimination accounted for 16% of the dose. Renal excretion of unchanged abacavir is a minor route of elimination in humans.

Half-life

1.54 ± 0.63 hours

Clearance

* 0.80 ± 0.24 L/hr/kg [asymptomatic, HIV-1-infected adult patients receiving single (IV dose of 150 mg]

Toxicity

Some myocardial degeneration has been noticed in rats and mice. The most commonly reported adverse reactions of at least moderate intensity (incidence ≥10%) in adult HIV-1 clinical trials were nausea, headache, malaise and fatigue, nausea and vomiting, and dreams/sleep disorders. Serious hypersensitivity reactions have been associated with abacavir which has been strongly linked to the presence of the HLA-B*57:01 allele. This reaction manifests itself in patients within the first 6 weeks of treatment. Patients should be tested for the presence of this allele as recommended by the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Source of information: Drugbank (External Link). Last updated on: 3rd July 18
*Trade Name used in the content below may not be the same as the HSA-registered product.

Active Ingredient / Synonyms

(-)-1-((2R,5S)-2-(Hydroxymethyl)-1,3-oxathiolan-5-yl)cytosine | (-)-2'-Deoxy-3'-thiacytidine | 2',3'-Dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine | 3'-Thia-2',3'-dideoxycytidine | 3TC | beta-L-2',3'-Dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine | beta-L-3'-Thia-2',3'-dideoxycytidine | Lamivudin | Lamivudina | Lamivudine | Lamivudinum | Lamivudine |

Description

A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and zalcitabine analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis B (HBV).

Indication

For the treatment of HIV infection and chronic hepatitis B (HBV).

Mechanism of Action

Lamivudine is a synthetic nucleoside analogue and is phosphorylated intracellularly to its active 5'-triphosphate metabolite, lamivudine triphosphate (L-TP). This nucleoside analogue is incorporated into viral DNA by HIV reverse transcriptase and HBV polymerase, resulting in DNA chain termination.

Pharmacodynamics

Lamivudine is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) with activity against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis B (HBV). Lamivudine is phosphorylated to active metabolites that compete for incorporation into viral DNA. They inhibit the HIV reverse transcriptase enzyme competitively and act as a chain terminator of DNA synthesis. The lack of a 3'-OH group in the incorporated nucleoside analogue prevents the formation of the 5' to 3' phosphodiester linkage essential for DNA chain elongation, and therefore, the viral DNA growth is terminated.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption:

Lamivudine was rapidly absorbed after oral administration in HIV-infected patients. Absolute bioavailability in 12 adult patients was 86% ± 16% (mean ± SD) for the 150-mg tablet and 87% ± 13% for the oral solution. The peak serum lamivudine concentration (Cmax) was 1.5 ± 0.5 mcg/mL when an oral dose of 2 mg/kg twice a day was given to HIV-1 patients. When given with food, absorption is slower, compared to the fasted state.

Distribution:

Apparent volume of distribution, IV administration = 1.3 ± 0.4 L/kg. Volume of distribution was independent of dose and did not correlate with body weight.

Metabolism:

Metabolism of lamivudine is a minor route of elimination. In man, the only known metabolite of lamivudine is the trans-sulfoxide metabolite. This biotransformation is catalyzed by sulfotransferases.

Elimination:

The majority of lamivudine is eliminated unchanged in urine by active organic cationic secretion. 5.2% ± 1.4% (mean ± SD) of the dose was excreted as the trans-sulfoxide metabolite in the urine. Lamivudine is excreted in human breast milk and into the milk of lactating rats.

Half-life

5 to 7 hours (healthy or HBV-infected patients)

Clearance

* Renal clearance = 199.7 ± 56.9 mL/min [300 mg oral dose, healthy subjects] * Renal clearance = 280.4 ± 75.2 mL/min [single IV dose, HIV-1-infected patients] * Total clearance = 398.5 ± 69.1 mL/min [HIV-1-infected patients]

Toxicity

The most common reported adverse reactions (incidence ≥15%) in adults were headache, nausea, malaise and fatigue, nasal signs and symptoms, diarrhea, and cough.

References

  1. Health Science Authority of Singapore - Reclassified POM
  2. Drugbank

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Approval Information

ABALAM ABACAVIR SULFATE & LAMIVUDINE TABLETS 600/300 MG was registered with Health Science Authority of Singapore by MEDICELL PHARMACEUTICAL (S) PTE LTD. It is marketed with the registration number of SIN15864P with effective from 2019-12-02.

This product contains 600mg of Abacavir, and 300mg of Lamivudine in the form of TABLET, FILM COATED.

The medicine was manufactured by HETERO LABS LIMITED in INDIA

It is a Presciption Only Medicine which can only be obtained from a doctor or a dentist, or from a pharmacist with a prescription from a Singapore-registered doctor or dentist.

Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification

ATC Code: J05AR02

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