ALVOCLAV POWDER FOR SOLUTION FOR INJECTION 1.2G/VIAL

Amoxicillin
Clavulanic Acid

Source of information: Drugbank (External Link). Last updated on: 3rd July 18
*Trade Name used in the content below may not be the same as the HSA-registered product.

Active Ingredient / Synonyms

(2S,5R,6R)-6-{[(2R)-2-amino-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetyl]amino}-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acid | 6-(p-hydroxy-α-aminophenylacetamido)penicillanic acid | Amox | Amoxicilina | Amoxicillin (anhydrous) | Amoxicillin anhydrous | Amoxicilline | Amoxicillinum | Amoxycillin | AX | p-Hydroxyampicillin | α-amino-p-hydroxybenzylpenicillin | Amoxicillin |

Description

A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to ampicillin except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration. Amoxicillin is commonly prescribed with clauvanic acid (a beta lactamase inhibitor) as it is susceptible to beta-lacatamase degradation.

Indication

For the treatment of infections of the ear, nose, and throat, the genitourinary tract, the skin and skin structure, and the lower respiratory tract due to susceptible (only b-lactamase-negative) strains of Streptococcus spp. (a- and b-hemolytic strains only), S. pneumoniae, Staphylococcus spp., H. influenzae, E. coli, P. mirabilis, or E. faecalis. Also for the treatment of acute, uncomplicated gonorrhea (ano-genital and urethral infections) due to N. gonorrhoeae (males and females).

Mechanism of Action

Amoxicillin binds to penicillin-binding protein 1A (PBP-1A) located inside the bacterial cell well. Penicillins acylate the penicillin-sensitive transpeptidase C-terminal domain by opening the lactam ring. This inactivation of the enzyme prevents the formation of a cross-link of two linear peptidoglycan strands, inhibiting the third and last stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cell lysis is then mediated by bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes such as autolysins; it is possible that amoxicllin interferes with an autolysin inhibitor.

Pharmacodynamics

Amoxicillin is a moderate-spectrum antibiotic active against a wide range of Gram-positive, and a limited range of Gram-negative organisms. It is usually the drug of choice within the class because it is better absorbed, following oral administration, than other beta-lactam antibiotics. Amoxicillin is susceptible to degradation by β-lactamase-producing bacteria, and so may be given with clavulanic acid to increase its susceptability. The incidence of β-lactamase-producing resistant organisms, including E. coli, appears to be increasing. Amoxicillin is sometimes combined with clavulanic acid, a β-lactamase inhibitor, to increase the spectrum of action against Gram-negative organisms, and to overcome bacterial antibiotic resistance mediated through β-lactamase production.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption:

Rapidly absorbed after oral administration.

Distribution:

Not Available

Metabolism:

Hepatic metabolism accounts for less than 30% of the biotransformation of most penicillins

Elimination:

Most of the amoxicillin is excreted unchanged in the urine; its excretion can be delayed by concurrent administration of probenecid.

Half-life

61.3 minutes

Clearance

Not Available

Toxicity

Serious toxicity is unlikely following large doses of amoxicillin. Acute ingestion of large doses of amoxicillin may cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain. Acute oliguric renal failure and hematuria may occur following large doses.

Source of information: Drugbank (External Link). Last updated on: 3rd July 18
*Trade Name used in the content below may not be the same as the HSA-registered product.

Active Ingredient / Synonyms

(2R,3Z,5R)-3-(2-HYDROXYETHYLIDENE)-7-oxo-4-oxa-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acid | (Z)-(2R,5R)-3-(2-Hydroxyethylidene)-7-oxo-4-oxa-1-azabicyclo(3.2.0)heptane-2-carboxylic acid | acide clavulanique | ácido clavulánico | Acidum clavulanicum | Antibiotic MM 14151 | Clavulanic Acid | Clavulansäure | MM 14151 | Clavulanate |

Description

Clavulanic acid and its salts and esters. The acid is a suicide inhibitor of bacterial beta-lactamase enzymes from Streptomyces clavuligerus. Administered alone, it has only weak antibacterial activity against most organisms, but given in combination with beta-lactam antibiotics prevents antibiotic inactivation by microbial lactamase. [PubChem]

Indication

For use with Amoxicillin, clavulanic acid is suitable for the treatment of infections with Staph. aureus and Bacteroides fragilis, or with beta-lactamase producing H. influenzae and E. coli.

Mechanism of Action

Clavulanic acid competitively and irreversibly inhibits a wide variety of beta-lactamases, commonly found in microorganisms resistant to penicillins and cephalosporins. Binding and irreversibly inhibiting the beta-lactamase results in a restauration of the antimicrobial activity of beta-lactam antibiotics against lactamase-secreting-resistant bacteria. By inactivating beta-lactamase (the bacterial resistance protein), the accompanying penicillin/cephalosporin drugs may be made more potent as well.

Pharmacodynamics

Clavulanic acid, produced by the fermentation of Streptomyces Clavuligerus, is a beta-lactam structurally related to the penicillins. Clavulanic acid is used in conjunction with amoxicillin for the treatment of bronchitis and urinary tract, skin, and soft tissue infections caused by beta-lactamase producing organisms.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption:

75%

Distribution:

Not Available

Metabolism:

Hepatic

Elimination:

Not Available

Half-life

1.0 hour

Clearance

Not Available

Toxicity

Gastrointestinal symptoms including stomach and abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. Rash, hyperactivity, or drowsiness have also been observed in a small number of patients

References

  1. Health Science Authority of Singapore - Reclassified POM
  2. Drugbank

Although best effort has been made to ensure the information provided is correct and updated, users are advised to visit HSA Official website whenever in doubt. Please see Disclaimers.
We welcome all the content error reporting/feedback. Please contact us @ Text Us!

Approval Information

ALVOCLAV POWDER FOR SOLUTION FOR INJECTION 1.2G/VIAL was registered with Health Science Authority of Singapore by ALVOGEN SINGAPORE PTE LTD. It is marketed with the registration number of SIN15043P with effective from 2016-07-04.

This product contains 1000mg of Amoxicillin , and 200mg of Clavulanic Acid in the form of INTRAVENOUS INJECTION, POWDER, FOR SOLUTION.

The medicine was manufactured by Laboratorio Reig Jofre S.A. in SPAIN

It is a Presciption Only Medicine which can only be obtained from a doctor or a dentist, or from a pharmacist with a prescription from a Singapore-registered doctor or dentist.

Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification

Products Containing as Single Ingredient

Drug IDTrade NameActive IngredientsForensic ClassRegistrantStatus
1DEXTROMETHORPHAN LINCTUS 15mg/5mlDextromethorphanP OnlyDRUG HOUSES OF AUSTRALIA PTE LTDActive
22ZENMOLIN SYRUP 2mg/5mlSalbutamolP OnlyDRUG HOUSES OF AUSTRALIA PTE LTDActive
41APO-PROPRANOLOL TABLET 40mgPropranololPOMPHARMAFORTE SINGAPORE PTE LTDActive
42APO-DIAZEPAM TABLET 2mgDiazepamPOMPHARMAFORTE SINGAPORE PTE LTDActive
44APO-DIAZEPAM TABLET 5mgDiazepamPOMPHARMAFORTE SINGAPORE PTE LTDActive
45APO-DIAZEPAM TABLET 10mgDiazepamPOMPHARMAFORTE SINGAPORE PTE LTDActive
46APO-PROPRANOLOL TABLET 10mgPropranololPOMPHARMAFORTE SINGAPORE PTE LTDActive
55APO-ISDN TABLET 10mgIsosorbide DinitratePOMPHARMAFORTE SINGAPORE PTE LTDActive
63DIAPO TABLET 10mgDiazepamPOMBEACONS PHARMACEUTICALS PTE LTDActive
64FURMIDE TABLET 40mgFurosemidePOMBEACONS PHARMACEUTICALS PTE LTDActive

Products Containing as Mixture Ingredient

Drug IDTrade NameActive IngredientsForensic ClassRegistrantStatus
4DIPHENHYDRAMINE EXPECTORANTAmmonium Chloride|Diphenhydramine|Sodium CitrateP OnlyDRUG HOUSES OF AUSTRALIA PTE LTDActive
5DIPHENHYDRAMINE EXPECTORANT PAED.Ammonium Chloride|Diphenhydramine|Sodium CitrateP OnlyDRUG HOUSES OF AUSTRALIA PTE LTDActive
400FAKTU SUPPOSITORYCinchocaine|PolicresulenP OnlyTAKEDA PHARMACEUTICALS (ASIA PACIFIC) PTE LTDActive
407TRIMAXAZOLE TABLETSulfamethoxazole|TrimethoprimPOMBEACONS PHARMACEUTICALS PTE LTDActive
435APO-SULFATRIM TABLETSulfamethoxazole|TrimethoprimPOMPHARMAFORTE SINGAPORE PTE LTDActive
508APO-SULFATRIM PEDIATRIC TABLETSulfamethoxazole|TrimethoprimPOMPHARMAFORTE SINGAPORE PTE LTDActive
526B.S. SUSPENSIONSulfamethoxazole|TrimethoprimPOMAPEX PHARMA MARKETING PTE LTDActive
583CO-TRIMEXAZOLE SUSPENSIONSulfamethoxazole|TrimethoprimPOMBEACONS PHARMACEUTICALS PTE LTDActive
676BANEOCIN OINTMENTBacitracin|NeomycinPOMNOVARTIS (SINGAPORE) PTE LTDActive
678BANEOCIN POWDERBacitracin|NeomycinPOMNOVARTIS (SINGAPORE) PTE LTDActive