Source of information: Drugbank (External Link). Last updated on: 3rd July 18
*Trade Name used in the content below may not be the same as the HSA-registered product.
Active Ingredient / Synonyms
1,2,3-Propanetrioltrinitrate | 1,2,3-Propanetriyl nitrate | Glycerin trinitrate | Glycerol trinitrate | Glycerol, nitric acid triester | Glyceroli trinitratis | Glyceroltrinitrat | Glyceryl trinitrate | Natispray | NG | Nitroglicerina | Nitroglycerin | Nitroglycerine | Nitroglycerol | Nitromed | Propane-1,2,3-triyl trinitrate | Rectogesic | Trinitrine | Trinitroglycerin | Trinitroglycerol | Nitroglycerin |
A volatile vasodilator which relieves angina pectoris by stimulating guanylate cyclase and lowering cytosolic calcium. [PubChem]
For the prevention of angina
Mechanism of Action
Similar to other nitrites and organic nitrates, nitroglycerin is converted to nitric oxide (NO), an active intermediate compound which activates the enzyme guanylate cyclase. This stimulates the synthesis of cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) which then activates a series of protein kinase-dependent phosphorylations in the smooth muscle cells, eventually resulting in the dephosphorylation of the myosin light chain of the smooth muscle fiber. The subsequent release of calcium ions results in the relaxation of the smooth muscle cells and vasodilation.
Nitroglycerin, an organic nitrate, is available in many forms as a vasodilator. Nitroglycerin is used in the treatement of angina pectoris and perioperative hypertension, to produce controlled hypotension during surgical procedures, to treat hypertensive emergencies, and to treat congestive heart failure associated with myocardial infarction.
* 3 L/kg
Hepatic, cytochrome P450 (P450) is a key enzyme of organic nitrate biotransformation
* 1 L/kg/min
Increased intracranial pressure, with any or all of persistent throbbing headache, confusion, and moderate fever; Vertigo; Palpitations; Visual disturbances; Nausea and vomiting (possibly with colic and even bloody diarrhea); Syncope (especially in the upright posture); Air hunger and dyspnea, later followed by reduced ventilatory effort; Diaphoresis, with the skin either flushed or cold and clammy; Heart block and bradycardia; Paralysis; Coma; Seizures; Death.
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