Source of information: Drugbank (External Link). Last updated on: 3rd July 18
*Trade Name used in the content below may not be the same as the HSA-registered product.
Active Ingredient / Synonyms
7-chloro-2-methylamino-5-phenyl-3H-1,4-benzodiazepin-4-oxide | CDP | Chloradiazepoxide | Chlordiazepoxidum | Clopoxide | Methaminodiazepoxide | Chlordiazepoxide |
An anxiolytic benzodiazepine derivative with anticonvulsant, sedative, and amnesic properties. It has also been used in the symptomatic treatment of alcohol withdrawal.
For the management of anxiety disorders or for the short-term relief of symptoms of anxiety, withdrawal symptoms of acute alcoholism, and preoperative apprehension and anxiety.
Mechanism of Action
Chlordiazepoxide binds to stereospecific benzodiazepine (BZD) binding sites on GABA (A) receptor complexes at several sites within the central nervous system, including the limbic system and reticular formation. This results in an increased binding of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA to the GABA(A) receptor.BZDs, therefore, enhance GABA-mediated chloride influx through GABA receptor channels, causing membrane hyperpolarization. The net neuro-inhibitory effects result in the observed sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, and muscle relaxant properties.
Chlordiazepoxide has antianxiety, sedative, appetite-stimulating and weak analgesic actions. The drug seems to block EEG arousal from stimulation in the brain stem reticular formation. The drug has been studied extensively in many species of animals and these studies are suggestive of action on the limbic system of the brain, which recent evidence indicates is involved in emotional responses. Hostile monkeys were made tame by oral drug doses which did not cause sedation. Chlordiazepoxide revealed a "taming" action with the elimination of fear and aggression. The taming effect of chlordiazepoxide was further demonstrated in rats made vicious by lesions in the septal area of the brain. The drug dosage which effectively blocked the vicious reaction was well below the dose which caused sedation in these animals.
Chlordiazepoxide is excreted in the urine, with 1% to 2% unchanged and 3% to 6% as conjugate.
LD50=537 mg/kg (Orally in rats). Signs of overdose include respiratory depression, muscle weakness, somnolence (general depressed activity).
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