PARLODEL TABLET 2.5mg

Bromocriptine

Source of information: Drugbank (External Link). Last updated on: 3rd July 18
*Trade Name used in the content below may not be the same as the HSA-registered product.

Active Ingredient / Synonyms

(5'alpha)-2-bromo-12'-hydroxy-2'-(1-methylethyl)-5'-(2-methylpropyl)-3',6',18-trioxoergotaman | (5'alpha)-2-bromo-12'-hydroxy-2'-(1-methylethyl)-5'-(2-methylpropyl)ergotaman-3',6',18-trione | (5'alpha)-2-bromo-12'-hydroxy-5'-isobutyl-2'-isopropyl-3',6',18-trioxoergotaman | 2-Bromo-alpha-ergocryptine | 2-Bromo-alpha-ergokryptin | 2-Bromo-alpha-ergokryptine | 2-bromo-α-ergocryptine | 2-bromo-α-ergokryptin | 2-bromo-α-ergokryptine | Bromocriptina | Bromocriptinum | Bromocryptine | Bromoergocriptine | Bromoergocryptine | Bromocriptine |

Description

Bromocriptine mesylate is a semisynthetic ergot alkaloid derivative with potent dopaminergic activity. It is indicated for the management of signs and symptoms of Parkinsonian Syndrome. Bromocriptine also inhibits prolactin secretion and may be used to treat dysfunctions associated with hyperprolactinemia. It also causes sustained suppression of somatotropin (growth hormone) secretion in some patients with acromegaly. Bromocriptine has been associated with pulmonary fibrosis.

Indication

For the treatment of galactorrhea due to hyperprolactinemia, prolactin-dependent menstrual disorders and infertility, prolactin-secreting adenomas, prolactin-dependent male hypogonadism, as adjunct therapy to surgery or radiotherapy for acromegaly or as monotherapy is special cases, as monotherapy in early Parksinsonian Syndrome or as an adjunct with levodopa in advanced cases with motor complications. Bromocriptine has also been used off-label to treat restless legs syndrome and neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

Mechanism of Action

The dopamine D2 receptor is a 7-transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor associated with Gi proteins. In lactotrophs, stimulation of dopamine D2 receptor causes inhibition of adenylyl cyclase, which decreases intracellular cAMP concentrations and blocks IP3-dependent release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Decreases in intracellular calcium levels may also be brought about via inhibition of calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels, rather than via inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. Additionally, receptor activation blocks phosphorylation of p42/p44 MAPK and decreases MAPK/ERK kinase phosphorylation. Inhibition of MAPK appears to be mediated by c-Raf and B-Raf-dependent inhibition of MAPK/ERK kinase. Dopamine-stimulated growth hormone release from the pituitary gland is mediated by a decrease in intracellular calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels rather than via adenylyl cyclase inhibition. Stimulation of dopamine D2 receptors in the nigrostriatal pathway leads to improvements in coordinated muscle activity in those with movement disorders.

Pharmacodynamics

Bromocriptine stimulates centrally-located dopaminergic receptors resulting in a number of pharmacologic effects. Five dopamine receptor types from two dopaminergic subfamilies have been identified. The dopaminergic D1 receptor subfamily consists of D1 and D5 subreceptors, which are associated with dyskinesias. The dopaminergic D2 receptor subfamily consists of D2, D3 and D4 subreceptors, which are associated with improvement of symptoms of movement disorders. Thus, agonist activity specific for D2 subfamily receptors, primarily D2 and D3 receptor subtypes, are the primary targets of dopaminergic antiparkinsonian agents. It is thought that postsynaptic D2 stimulation is primarily responsible for the antiparkinsonian effect of dopamine agonists, while presynaptic D2 stimulation confers neuroprotective effects. This semisynthetic ergot derivative exhibits potent agonist activity on dopamine D2-receptors. It also exhibits agonist activity (in order of decreasing binding affinity) on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1D, dopamine D3, 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, 5-HT1B, and 5-HT2C receptors, antagonist activity on α2A-adrenergic, α2C, α2B, and dopamine D1 receptors, partial agonist activity at receptor 5-HT2B, and inactivates dopamine D4 and 5-HT7 receptors. Parkinsonian Syndrome manifests when approximately 80% of dopaminergic activity in the nigrostriatal pathway of the brain is lost. As this striatum is involved in modulating the intensity of coordinated muscle activity (e.g. movement, balance, walking), loss of activity may result in dystonia (acute muscle contraction), Parkinsonism (including symptoms of bradykinesia, tremor, rigidity, and flattened affect), akathesia (inner restlessness), tardive dyskinesia (involuntary muscle movements usually associated with long-term loss of dopaminergic activity), and neuroleptic malignant syndrome, which manifests when complete blockage of nigrostriatal dopamine occurs. High dopaminergic activity in the mesolimbic pathway of the brain causes hallucinations and delusions; these side effects of dopamine agonists are manifestations seen in patients with schizophrenia who have overractivity in this area of the brain. The hallucinogenic side effects of dopamine agonists may also be due to 5-HT2A agonism. The tuberoinfundibular pathway of the brain originates in the hypothalamus and terminates in the pituitary gland. In this pathway, dopamine inhibits lactotrophs in anterior pituitary from secreting prolactin. Increased dopaminergic activity in the tuberoinfundibular pathway inhibits prolactin secretion making bromocriptine an effective agent for treating disorders associated with hypersecretion of prolactin. Pulmonary fibrosis may be associated bromocriptine’s agonist activity at 5-HT1B and 5-HT2B receptors.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption:

Approximately 28% of the oral dose is absorbed; however due to a substantial first pass effect, only 6% of the oral dose reaches the systemic circulation unchanged. Bromocriptine and its metabolites appear in the blood as early as 10 minutes following oral administration and peak plasma concentration are reached within 1-1.5 hours. Serum prolactin may be decreased within 2 hours or oral administration with a maximal effect achieved after 8 hours. Growth hormone concentrations in patients with acromegaly is reduced within 1-2 hours with a single oral dose of 2.5 mg and decreased growth hormone concentrations persist for at least 4-5 hours.

Distribution:

Not Available

Metabolism:

Completely metabolized by the liver, primarily by hydrolysis of the amide bond to produce lysergic acid and a peptide fragment, both inactive and non-toxic. Bromocriptine is metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4 and excreted primarily in the feces via biliary secretion.

Elimination:

Parent drug and metabolites are almost completely excreted via the liver, and only 6% eliminated via the kidney.

Half-life

2-8 hours

Clearance

Not Available

Toxicity

Symptoms of overdosage include nausea, vomiting, and severe hypotension. The most common adverse effects include nausea, headache, vertigo, constipation, light-headedness, abdominal cramps, nasal congestion, diarrhea, and hypotension.

References

  1. Health Science Authority of Singapore - Reclassified POM
  2. Drugbank

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Approval Information

PARLODEL TABLET 2.5mg was registered with Health Science Authority of Singapore by NOVARTIS (SINGAPORE) PTE LTD. It is marketed with the registration number of SIN01082P with effective from 1988-12-05.

This product contains 2.5mg of Bromocriptine in the form of TABLET.

The medicine was manufactured by NOVARTIS FARMA S P A Mipharm S.p.A. in ITALY

It is a Presciption Only Medicine which can only be obtained from a doctor or a dentist, or from a pharmacist with a prescription from a Singapore-registered doctor or dentist.

Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification

ATC Code: G02CB01

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