TAPCOM-S OPHTHALMIC SOLUTION

Tafluprost
Timolol

Source of information: Drugbank (External Link). Last updated on: 3rd July 18
*Trade Name used in the content below may not be the same as the HSA-registered product.

Active Ingredient / Synonyms

AFP-168 | Tafluprost |

Description

A prostaglandin analogue ester prodrug used topically (as eye drops) to control the progression of glaucoma and in the management of ocular hypertension. Chemically, tafluprost is a fluorinated analog of prostaglandin F2-alpha. Tafluprost was approved for use in the U.S. on February 10, 2012.

Indication

Tafluprost is indicated for reducing elevated intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.

Mechanism of Action

Tafluprost acid is a prostanoid selective FP receptor agonist that is believed to reduce the intraocular pressure (IOP) by increasing the outflow of aqueous humor. Studies in animals and humans suggest that the main mechanism of action is increased uveoscleral outflow.

Pharmacodynamics

Tafluprost is a novel prostaglandin analog with a high affinity for the fluoroprostaglandin (FP) receptor PGF2α. Tafluprost has an affinity for the FP receptor that is approximately 12 times higher than that of the carboxylic acid of latanoprost, but with almost no potential to bind to other receptors.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption:

Following instillation, tafluprost is absorbed through the cornea and is hydrolyzed to the biologically active acid metabolite, tafluprost acid. Tafluprost is an ester which makes the drug lipophillic enough to be quickly absorbed through. When administered to the eye, the peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and time to peak plasma concentration (Tmax) of tafluprost acid in healthy subjects was 26 pg/mL and 10 minutes respectively. a AUC, tafluprost acid = 394 pg*min/mL - 432 pg*min/mL.

Distribution:

The highest concentration of tafluprost acid was found in the cornea and conjunctiva.

Metabolism:

Tafluprost is an ester prodrug which is rapidly hydrolyzed by corneal esterases to form its biologically active acid metabolite. Tafluprost acid is further metabolized via fatty acid β-oxidation and phase II conjugation into 1,2,3,4-tetranor acid.

Elimination:

Mean plasma tafluprost acid concentrations were below the limit of quantification of the bioanalytical assay (10 pg/mL) at 30 minutes following topical ocular administration of tafluprost 0.0015% ophthalmic solution. In male rats, it was observed that tafluprost was excreted into the feces.

Half-life

Not Available

Clearance

Not Available

Toxicity

Most common ocular adverse reaction is conjunctival hyperemia (range 4% – 20%).

Source of information: Drugbank (External Link). Last updated on: 3rd July 18
*Trade Name used in the content below may not be the same as the HSA-registered product.

Active Ingredient / Synonyms

(S)-1-(tert-butylamino)-3-[(4-morpholin-4-yl-1,2,5-thiadiazol-3-yl)oxy]propan-2-ol | Timolol | Timolol anhydrous | Timololo | Timololum | Timolol |

Description

A beta-adrenergic antagonist similar in action to propranolol. The levo-isomer is the more active. Timolol has been proposed as an antihypertensive, antiarrhythmic, antiangina, and antiglaucoma agent. It is also used in the treatment of migraine disorders and tremor. [PubChem]

Indication

In its oral form it is used to treat high blood pressure and prevent heart attacks, and occasionally to prevent migraine headaches. In its opthalmic form it is used to treat open-angle and occasionally secondary glaucoma.

Mechanism of Action

Like propranolol and nadolol, timolol competes with adrenergic neurotransmitters such as catecholamines for binding at beta(1)-adrenergic receptors in the heart and vascular smooth muscle and beta(2)-receptors in the bronchial and vascular smooth muscle. Beta(1)-receptor blockade results in a decrease in resting and exercise heart rate and cardiac output, a decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and, possibly, a reduction in reflex orthostatic hypotension. Beta(2)-blockade results in an increase in peripheral vascular resistance. The exact mechanism whereby timolol reduces ocular pressure is still not known. The most likely action is by decreasing the secretion of aqueous humor.

Pharmacodynamics

Similar to propranolol and nadolol, timolol is a non-selective, beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist. Timolol does not have significant intrinsic sympathomimetic, direct myocardial depressant, or local anesthetic (membrane-stabilizing) activity, but does possess a relatively high degree of lipid solubility. Timolol, when applied topically to the eye, has the action of reducing elevated, as well as normal, intraocular pressure, whether or not accompanied by glaucoma. Elevated intraocular pressure is a major risk factor in the pathogenesis of glaucomatous visual field loss and optic nerve damage.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption:

Bioavailability is about 60%

Distribution:

Not Available

Metabolism:

Primarily hepatic (80%) via the cytochrome P450 2D6 isoenzyme.

Elimination:

Timolol and its metabolites are primarily excreted in the urine.

Half-life

2.5-5 hours

Clearance

Not Available

Toxicity

LD50=1190 mg/kg (oral, mice), LD50=900 mg/kg (oral, rat). Symptoms of overdose include drowsiness, vertigo, headache, and atriventricular block.

References

  1. Health Science Authority of Singapore - Reclassified POM
  2. Drugbank

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Approval Information

TAPCOM-S OPHTHALMIC SOLUTION was registered with Health Science Authority of Singapore by SANTEN PHARMACEUTICAL ASIA PTE LTD. It is marketed with the registration number of SIN15060P with effective from 2016-08-02.

This product contains 0.015mg/ml of Tafluprost, and 5mg/ml of Timolol in the form of OPHTHALMIC SOLUTION.

The medicine was manufactured by Laboratoire Unither in FRANCE

It is a Presciption Only Medicine which can only be obtained from a doctor or a dentist, or from a pharmacist with a prescription from a Singapore-registered doctor or dentist.

Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification

ATC Code: S01ED51

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