TRINOMIA HARD CAPSULES 100mg/ 20mg/ 10mg

Acetylsalicylic Acid
Atorvastatin
Ramipril

Source of information: Drugbank (External Link). Last updated on: 3rd July 18
*Trade Name used in the content below may not be the same as the HSA-registered product.

Active Ingredient / Synonyms

2-Acetoxybenzenecarboxylic acid | 2-Acetoxybenzoic acid | Acetylsalicylate | Acetylsalicylsäure | acide 2-(acétyloxy)benzoïque | acide acétylsalicylique | ácido acetilsalicílico | Acidum acetylsalicylicum | ASA | Aspirin | Azetylsalizylsäure | o-acetoxybenzoic acid | O-acetylsalicylic acid | o-carboxyphenyl acetate | Polopiryna | salicylic acid acetate | Acetylsalicylic acid |

Description

The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Acetylsalicylic acid also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)

Indication

For use in the temporary relief of various forms of pain, inflammation associated with various conditions (including rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, osteoarthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis), and is also used to reduce the risk of death and/or nonfatal myocardial infarction in patients with a previous infarction or unstable angina pectoris.

Mechanism of Action

The analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects of acetylsalicylic acid are due to actions by both the acetyl and the salicylate portions of the intact molecule as well as by the active salicylate metabolite. Acetylsalicylic acid directly and irreversibly inhibits the activity of both types of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) to decrease the formation of precursors of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid. This makes acetylsalicylic acid different from other NSAIDS (such as diclofenac and ibuprofen) which are reversible inhibitors. Salicylate may competitively inhibit prostaglandin formation. Acetylsalicylic acid's antirheumatic (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory) actions are a result of its analgesic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms; the therapeutic effects are not due to pituitary-adrenal stimulation. The platelet aggregation-inhibiting effect of acetylsalicylic acid specifically involves the compound's ability to act as an acetyl donor to cyclooxygenase; the nonacetylated salicylates have no clinically significant effect on platelet aggregation. Irreversible acetylation renders cyclooxygenase inactive, thereby preventing the formation of the aggregating agent thromboxane A2 in platelets. Since platelets lack the ability to synthesize new proteins, the effects persist for the life of the exposed platelets (7-10 days). Acetylsalicylic acid may also inhibit production of the platelet aggregation inhibitor, prostacyclin (prostaglandin I2), by blood vessel endothelial cells; however, inhibition prostacyclin production is not permanent as endothelial cells can produce more cyclooxygenase to replace the non-functional enzyme.

Pharmacodynamics

Acetylsalicylic acid is an analgesic, antipyretic, antirheumatic, and anti-inflammatory agent. Acetylsalicylic acid's mode of action as an antiinflammatory and antirheumatic agent may be due to inhibition of synthesis and release of prostaglandins. Acetylsalicylic acid appears to produce analgesia by virtue of both a peripheral and CNS effect. Peripherally, acetylsalicylic acid acts by inhibiting the synthesis and release of prostaglandins. Acting centrally, it would appear to produce analgesia at a hypothalamic site in the brain, although the mode of action is not known. Acetylsalicylic acid also acts on the hypothalamus to produce antipyresis; heat dissipation is increased as a result of vasodilation and increased peripheral blood flow. Acetylsalicylic acid's antipyretic activity may also be related to inhibition of synthesis and release of prostaglandins.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption:

Absorption is generally rapid and complete following oral administration but may vary according to specific salicylate used, dosage form, and other factors such as tablet dissolution rate and gastric or intraluminal pH.

Distribution:

Not Available

Metabolism:

Acetylsalicylic acid is rapidly hydrolyzed primarily in the liver to salicylic acid, which is conjugated with glycine (forming salicyluric acid) and glucuronic acid and excreted largely in the urine.

Elimination:

Not Available

Half-life

The plasma half-life is approximately 15 minutes; that for salicylate lengthens as the dose increases: doses of 300 to 650 mg have a half-life of 3.1 to 3.2 hours; with doses of 1 gram, the half-life is increased to 5 hours and with 2 grams it is increase

Clearance

Not Available

Toxicity

Oral, mouse: LD50 = 250 mg/kg; Oral, rabbit: LD50 = 1010 mg/kg; Oral, rat: LD50 = 200 mg/kg. Effects of overdose include: tinnitus, abdominal pain, hypokalemia, hypoglycemia, pyrexia, hyperventilation, dysrhythmia, hypotension, hallucination, renal failure, confusion, seizure, coma, and death.

Source of information: Drugbank (External Link). Last updated on: 3rd July 18
*Trade Name used in the content below may not be the same as the HSA-registered product.

Active Ingredient / Synonyms

atorvastatina | atorvastatine | atorvastatinum | Atorvastatin |

Description

Atorvastatin (Lipitor) is a member of the drug class known as statins. It is used for lowering cholesterol. Atorvastatin is a competitive inhibitor of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, the rate-determining enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis via the mevalonate pathway. HMG-CoA reductase catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate. Atorvastatin acts primarily in the liver. Decreased hepatic cholesterol levels increases hepatic uptake of cholesterol and reduces plasma cholesterol levels.

Indication

May be used as primary prevention in individuals with multiple risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) and as secondary prevention in individuals with CHD to reduce the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, angina, and revascularization procedures. May be used to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). May be used in the treatment of primary hypercholesterolemia and mixed dyslipidemia, homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, primary dysbetalipoproteinemia, and/or hypertriglyeridemia as an adjunct to dietary therapy to decrease serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein B (apoB), and triglyceride concentrations, while increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels.

Mechanism of Action

Atorvastatin selectively and competitively inhibits the hepatic enzyme HMG-CoA reductase. As HMG-CoA reductase is responsible for converting HMG-CoA to mevalonate in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, this results in a subsequent decrease in hepatic cholesterol levels. Decreased hepatic cholesterol levels stimulates upregulation of hepatic LDL-C receptors which increases hepatic uptake of LDL-C and reduces serum LDL-C concentrations.

Pharmacodynamics

Atorvastatin, a selective, competitive HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, is used to lower serum total and LDL cholesterol, apoB, and triglyceride levels while increasing HDL cholesterol. High LDL-C, low HDL-C and high TG concentrations in the plasma are associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. The total cholesterol to HDL-C ratio is a strong predictor of coronary artery disease and high ratios are associated with higher risk of disease. Increased levels of HDL-C are associated with lower cardiovascular risk. By decreasing LDL-C and TG and increasing HDL-C, atorvastatin reduces the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Atorvastatin has a unique structure, long half-life, and hepatic selectivity, explaining its greater LDL-lowering potency compared to other HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption:

Atorvastatin is rapidly absorbed after oral administration with maximum plasma concentrations achieved in 1 to 2 hours. The absolute bioavailability of atorvastatin (parent drug) is approximately 14% and the systemic availability of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity is approximately 30%. The low systemic bioavailability is due to presystemic clearance by gastrointestinal mucosa and first-pass metabolism in the liver.

Distribution:

381 L

Metabolism:

Atorvastatin is extensively metabolized to ortho- and parahydroxylated derivatives and various beta-oxidation products. In vitro inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase by ortho- and parahydroxylated metabolites is equivalent to that of atorvastatin. Approximately 70% of circulating inhibitory activity for HMG-CoA reductase is attributed to active metabolites. CYP3A4 is also involved in the metabolism of atorvastatin.

Elimination:

Eliminated primarily in bile after hepatic and/or extrahepatic metabolism. Does not appear to undergo significant enterohepatic recirculation. Less than 2% of the orally administered dose is recovered in urine.

Half-life

14 hours, but half-life of HMG-CoA inhibitor activity is 20-30 hours due to longer-lived active metabolites

Clearance

Not Available

Toxicity

Generally well-tolerated. Side effects may include myalgia, constipation, asthenia, abdominal pain, and nausea. Other possible side effects include myotoxicity (myopathy, myositis, rhabdomyolysis) and hepatotoxicity. To avoid toxicity in Asian patients, lower doses should be considered.

Source of information: Drugbank (External Link). Last updated on: 3rd July 18
*Trade Name used in the content below may not be the same as the HSA-registered product.

Active Ingredient / Synonyms

(2S-(1(R*(r*)),2alpha,3abeta,6abeta))-1-(2-((1-(ethoxycarbonyl)-3-phenylpropyl)amino)-1-oxopropyl)octahydrocyclopenta(b)pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid | Altace (tn) | Ramipril | Ramiprilum | Tritace | Ramipril |

Description

Ramipril is a prodrug belonging to the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor class of medications. It is metabolized to ramiprilat in the liver and, to a lesser extent, kidneys. Ramiprilat is a potent, competitive inhibitor of ACE, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of angiotensin I (ATI) to angiotensin II (ATII). ATII regulates blood pressure and is a key component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Ramipril may be used in the treatment of hypertension, congestive heart failure, nephropathy, and to reduce the rate of death, myocardial infarction and stroke in individuals at high risk of cardiovascular events.

Indication

For the management of mild to severe hypertension. May be used to reduce cardiovascular mortality following myocardial infarction in hemodynamically stable individuals who develop clinical signs of congestive heart failure within a few days following myocardial infarction. To reduce the rate of death, myocardial infarction and stroke in individuals at high risk of cardiovascular events. May be used to slow the progression of renal disease in individuals with hypertension, diabetes mellitus and microalubinuria or overt nephropathy.

Mechanism of Action

There are two isoforms of ACE: the somatic isoform, which exists as a glycoprotein comprised of a single polypeptide chain of 1277; and the testicular isoform, which has a lower molecular mass and is thought to play a role in sperm maturation and binding of sperm to the oviduct epithelium. Somatic ACE has two functionally active domains, N and C, which arise from tandem gene duplication. Although the two domains have high sequence similarity, they play distinct physiological roles. The C-domain is predominantly involved in blood pressure regulation while the N-domain plays a role in hematopoietic stem cell differentiation and proliferation. ACE inhibitors bind to and inhibit the activity of both domains, but have much greater affinity for and inhibitory activity against the C-domain. Ramiprilat, the principle active metabolite of ramipril, competes with ATI for binding to ACE and inhibits and enzymatic proteolysis of ATI to ATII. Decreasing ATII levels in the body decreases blood pressure by inhibiting the pressor effects of ATII as described in the Pharmacology section above. Ramipril also causes an increase in plasma renin activity likely due to a loss of feedback inhibition mediated by ATII on the release of renin and/or stimulation of reflex mechanisms via baroreceptors.

Pharmacodynamics

Ramipril is an ACE inhibitor similar to benazepril, fosinopril and quinapril. It is an inactive prodrug that is converted to ramiprilat in the liver, the main site of activation, and kidneys. Ramiprilat confers blood pressure lowing effects by antagonizing the effect of the RAAS. The RAAS is a homeostatic mechanism for regulating hemodynamics, water and electrolyte balance. During sympathetic stimulation or when renal blood pressure or blood flow is reduced, renin is released from the granular cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus in the kidneys. In the blood stream, renin cleaves circulating angiotensinogen to ATI, which is subsequently cleaved to ATII by ACE. ATII increases blood pressure using a number of mechanisms. First, it stimulates the secretion of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. Aldosterone travels to the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and collecting tubule of nephrons where it increases sodium and water reabsorption by increasing the number of sodium channels and sodium-potassium ATPases on cell membranes. Second, ATII stimulates the secretion of vasopressin (also known as antidiuretic hormone or ADH) from the posterior pituitary gland. ADH stimulates further water reabsorption from the kidneys via insertion of aquaporin-2 channels on the apical surface of cells of the DCT and collecting tubules. Third, ATII increases blood pressure through direct arterial vasoconstriction. Stimulation of the Type 1 ATII receptor on vascular smooth muscle cells leads to a cascade of events resulting in myocyte contraction and vasoconstriction. In addition to these major effects, ATII induces the thirst response via stimulation of hypothalamic neurons. ACE inhibitors inhibit the rapid conversion of ATI to ATII and antagonize RAAS-induced increases in blood pressure. ACE (also known as kininase II) is also involved in the enzymatic deactivation of bradykinin, a vasodilator. Inhibiting the deactivation of bradykinin increases bradykinin levels and may sustain the effects of ramiprilat by causing increased vasodilation and decreased blood pressure.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption:

The extent of absorption is at least 50-60%. Food decreases the rate of absorption from the GI tract without affecting the extent of absorption. The absolute bioavailabilities of ramipril and ramiprilat were 28% and 44%, respectively, when oral administration was compared to intravenous administration.

Distribution:

Not Available

Metabolism:

Hepatic metabolism accounts for 75% of total ramipril metabolism. 25% of hepatic metabolism produces the active metabolite ramiprilat via liver esterase enzymes. 100% of renal metabolism converts ramipril to ramiprilat. Other metabolites, diketopiperazine ester, the diketopiperazine acid, and the glucuronides of ramipril and ramiprilat, are inactive.

Elimination:

Not Available

Half-life

Plasma concentrations of ramiprilat decline in a triphasic manner. Initial rapid decline represents distribution into tissues and has a half life of 2-4 hours. The half life of the apparent elimination phase is 9-18 hours and that of the terminal eliminat

Clearance

Not Available

Toxicity

Symptoms of overdose may include excessive peripheral vasodilation (with marked hypotension and shock), bradycardia, electrolyte disturbances, and renal failure. The most likely adverse reactions are symptoms attributable to its blood-pressure lowing effect. May cause headache, dizziness, asthenia, chest pain, nausea, peripheral edema, somnolence, impotence, rash, arthritis, and dyspnea. LD50 = 10933 mg/kg (orally in mice).

References

  1. Health Science Authority of Singapore - Reclassified POM
  2. Drugbank

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Approval Information

TRINOMIA HARD CAPSULES 100mg/ 20mg/ 10mg was registered with Health Science Authority of Singapore by DCH AURIGA SINGAPORE. It is marketed with the registration number of SIN15646P with effective from 2019-03-19.

This product contains 100mg of Acetylsalicylic Acid,20mg of Atorvastatin, and10mg of Ramipril in the form of CAPSULE.

The medicine was manufactured by Ferrer Internacional S.A. in SPAIN

It is a Presciption Only Medicine which can only be obtained from a doctor or a dentist, or from a pharmacist with a prescription from a Singapore-registered doctor or dentist.

Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification

ATC Code: C10BX06

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