Source of information: Drugbank (External Link). Last updated on: 3rd July 18
*Trade Name used in the content below may not be the same as the HSA-registered product.
Active Ingredient / Synonyms
Acide tranexamique | Acido tranexamico | Acidum tranexamicum | Tranexamsaeure | Tranexmic acid | Tranhexamic acid | Trans AMCHA | trans-4-(Aminomethyl)cyclohexanecarboxylic acid | trans-4-aminomethylcyclohexane-1-carboxylic acid | trans-Amcha | trans-Tranexamic acid | Tranexamic Acid |
Antifibrinolytic hemostatic used in severe hemorrhage. [PubChem]
For use in patients with hemophilia for short term use (two to eight days) to reduce or prevent hemorrhage and reduce the need for replacement therapy during and following tooth extraction. It can also be used for excessive bleeding in menstruation, surgery, or trauma cases.
Mechanism of Action
Tranexamic acid competitively inhibits activation of plasminogen (via binding to the kringle domain), thereby reducing conversion of plasminogen to plasmin (fibrinolysin), an enzyme that degrades fibrin clots, fibrinogen, and other plasma proteins, including the procoagulant factors V and VIII. Tranexamic acid also directly inhibits plasmin activity, but higher doses are required than are needed to reduce plasmin formation.
Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic that competitively inhibits the activation of plasminogen to plasmin. Tranexamic acid is a competitive inhibitor of plasminogen activation, and at much higher concentrations, a noncompetitive inhibitor of plasmin, i.e., actions similar to aminocaproic acid. Tranexamic acid is about 10 times more potent in vitro than aminocaproic acid. Tranexamic acid binds more strongly than aminocaproic acid to both the strong and weak receptor sites of the plasminogen molecule in a ratio corresponding to the difference in potency between the compounds. Tranexamic acid in a concentration of 1 mg per mL does not aggregate platelets in vitro. In patients with hereditary angioedema, inhibition of the formation and activity of plasmin by tranexamic acid may prevent attacks of angioedema by decreasing plasmin-induced activation of the first complement protein (C1).
Absorption of tranexamic acid after oral administration in humans represents approximately 30 to 50% of the ingested dose and bioavailability is not affected by food intake.
* 9 to 12 L
Only a small fraction of the drug is metabolized (less than 5%).
Urinary excretion is the main route of elimination via glomerular filtration.
Biological half-life in the joint fluid is about 3 hours.
* 110 - 116 mL/min
Oral LD50 in mice is >10 gm/kg. Symptoms of overdosage may be nausea, vomiting, orthostatic symptoms and/or hypotension.
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