Source of information: Drugbank (External Link). Last updated on: 3rd July 18
*Trade Name used in the content below may not be the same as the HSA-registered product.
Active Ingredient / Synonyms
6-(3-(1-Adamantyl)-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-naphthoic acid | Adaferin | Adapaleno | Adapalenum | Differine | Adapalene |
Adapalene is a topical retinoid primarily used in the treatment of acne and is also used (off-label) to treat keratosis pilaris as well as other skin conditions. It is currently marketed by Galderma under the trade names Differin in some countries, and Adaferin in India.
For the topical treatment of comedo, papular and pustular acne (acne vulgaris) of the face, chest or back.
Mechanism of Action
Mechanistically, adapalene binds to specific retinoic acid nuclear receptors (gamma and beta) and retinoid X receptors but does not bind to the cytosolic receptor protein. Although the exact mode of action of adapalene is unknown, it is suggested that topical adapalene may normalize the differentiation of follicular epithelial cells resulting in decreased microcomedone formation.
Adapalene is a chemically stable retinoid-like compound. Biochemical and pharmacological profile studies have demonstrated that adapalene is a modulator of cellular differentiation, keratinization, and inflammatory processes all of which represent important features in the pathology of acne vulgaris.
Absorption of adapalene through human skin is low. Only trace amounts (<0.25 ng/mL) of parent substance have been found in the plasma of acne patients following chronic topical application of adapalene in controlled clinical trials
Metabolized mainly by O-demethylation, hydroxylation and conjugation, and excretion is primarily by the biliary route.
Excretion appears to be primarily by the biliary route.
The acute oral toxicity of adapalene in mice and rats is greater than 10 mL/kg. Chronic ingestion of the drug may lead to the same side effects as those associated with excessive oral intake of Vitamin A.
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